Biology

Form 4

Chapter 1 - Biology and its Importance

  • 1.1.1 Introduction to Biology
  • 1.2.1 Scientific Investigation

Chapter 2 - Cell Structure and Cell Organization

  • 2.1.1 Cell Structure and Functions of Cellular Components
  • 2.2.1 Density of Certain Organelles in Specific Cells
  • 2.3.1 The Living Processes in Unicellular Organisms
  • 2.4.1 Cell Organisation in Multicellular Organisms
  • 2.5.1 Internal Environment

Chapter 3 - Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane in Everyday Life

  • 3.1.1 Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane
  • 3.2.1 Passive Transport
  • 3.3.1 Active Transport
  • 3.4.1 Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane in Everyday Life

Chapter 4 - Chemical Composition of the Cell

  • 4.1.1 Chemical Composition of the Cell
  • 4.2.1 Carbohydrates and Lipids

Chapter 5 - Cell Division

  • 5.1.1 Importance of Cell Division
  • 5.2.1 The Process of Mitosis and Cytokinesis
  • 5.3.1 Application of Mitosis

Chapter 6 - Nutrition

  • 6.1.1 Nutrition and Balanced Diet
  • 6.2.1 Food Tests
  • 6.3.1 Nutrients and Malnutrition
  • 6.4.1 The Energy Value and Vitamin C Content in Food
  • 6.5.1 Food Digestion in Humans
  • 6.6.1 Absorption and Assimilation of Digested Food and Defaecation
  • 6.7.1 Cellulose Digestion
  • 6.8.1 Importance of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Plants
  • 6.9.1 Photosynthesis and Its Mechanism
  • 6.10.1 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
  • 6.11.1 Technology used in Food Production and Food Processing

Chapter 7 - Respiration

  • 7.1.1 Respiration and Energy Production
  • 7.2.1 Anaerobic Respiration
  • 7.3.1 Respiratory Structures and Breathing Mechanism in Humans and Animals
  • 7.4.1 Gaseous Exchange and Transport of Gases in Humans
  • 7.5.1 Regulatory Mechanism in Respiration and Maintaining a Healthy Respiratory System
  • 7.6.1 Respiration in Plants

Chapter 8 - The Dynamic Ecosystem

  • 8.1.1 The Components and Interaction in the Ecosystem
  • 8.2.1 Colonisation and Succession in an Ecosystem
  • 8.3.1 Understanding Population Ecology
  • 8.4.1 Biodiversity and Its Importance
  • 8.5.1 Factors Affecting the Activity of Microorganisms
  • 8.6.1 Impact of Microorganisms on Life

Chapter 9 - The Endangered Ecosystem

  • 9.1.1 Impact of Human Activities on the Ecosystem
  • 9.2.1 Air Pollution
  • 9.3.1 Water Pollution
  • 9.4.1 Greenhouse Efect and Thinning of Ozone Layer
  • 9.5.1 Managing the Ecosystem

Form 5

Chapter 1 - Transport

  • 0.1.1 Transport Systems in Multicellular Organisms
  • 0.2.1 The Blood Circulatory System in Humans
  • 0.3.1 Comparison Between the Circulatory Systems of Humans, Fish and Amphibians
  • 0.4.1 The Lymphatic System in Humans
  • 0.5.1 Body Defence Mechanism in Humans
  • 0.6.1 Tissues Involved in the Transport of Substances in Plants
  • 0.7.1 The Transport of Substances in Plants
  • 0.8.1 Factors Affecting the Rate of Transpiration

Chapter 2 - Locomotion and Support

  • 11.1.1 Support and Locomotion in Animals
  • 11.2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans
  • 1.3.1 Support in Plants
  • 11.1.1 Support and Locomotion in Animals
  • 11.2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans
  • 1.3.1 Support in Plants

Chapter 3 - Coordination and Response

  • 2.1.1 The Human Nervous System
  • 2.2.1 Response and Coordination
  • 2.3.1 The Human Endocrine System
  • 2.4.1 The Concept of Homeostasis
  • 2.5.1 Formation of Urine and Osmoregulation
  • 2.6.1 Drug and Alcohol Abuse
  • 2.7.1 Hormones in Plants

Chapter 4 - Reproduction and Growth

  • 3.1.1 Gamete Formation
  • 3.2.1 The Menstrual Cycle
  • 3.3.1 Fertilisation and Zygote Development
  • 13.4.1 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • 3.5.1 Growth in Multicellular Organisms and the Growth Curve
  • 3.6.1 Primary and Secondary Growth in Plants

Chapter 5 - Inheritance

  • 4.1.1 Mendel's First Law of Inheritance
  • 4.2.1 Mendel's Second Law of Inheritance
  • 4.3.1 Inheritance of Traits in Humans
  • 4.4.1 Genes and Chromosomes

Chapter 6 - Variation

  • 4.3.6 Types of Variation
  • 4.3.7 Causes of Variation
  • 4.3.8 Mutation

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