Biology

Contents

Form 4 KBSM

Biology and its Importance

  • Introduction to Biology
  • Scientific Investigation

Cell Structure and Cell Organization

  • Cell Structure and Functions of Cellular Components
  • Density of Certain Organelles in Specific Cells
  • The Living Processes in Unicellular Organisms
  • Cell Organisation in Multicellular Organisms
  • Internal Environment

Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane in Everyday Life

  • Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane
  • Passive Transport
  • Active Transport
  • Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane in Everyday Life

Chemical Composition of the Cell

  • Chemical Composition of the Cell
  • Carbohydrates and Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Enzymes and their importance
  • Mechanism of Enzyme Reaction and Factors Affecting the Activity of Enzymes

Cell Division

  • Importance of Cell Division
  • The Process of Mitosis and Cytokinesis
  • Application of Mitosis
  • Meiosis

Nutrition

  • Nutrition and Balanced Diet
  • Food Tests
  • Nutrients and Malnutrition
  • The Energy Value and Vitamin C Content in Food
  • Food Digestion in Humans
  • Absorption and Assimilation of Digested Food and Defaecation
  • Cellulose Digestion
  • Importance of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Plants
  • Photosynthesis and Its Mechanism
  • Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
  • Technology used in Food Production and Food Processing

Respiration

  • Respiration and Energy Production
  • Anaerobic Respiration
  • Respiratory Structures and Breathing Mechanism in Humans and Animals
  • Gaseous Exchange and Transport of Gases in Humans
  • Regulatory Mechanism in Respiration and Maintaining a Healthy Respiratory System
  • Respiration in Plants

The Dynamic Ecosystem

  • The Components and Interaction in the Ecosystem
  • Colonisation and Succession in an Ecosystem
  • Understanding Population Ecology
  • Biodiversity and Its Importance
  • Factors Affecting the Activity of Microorganisms
  • Impact of Microorganisms on Life

The Endangered Ecosystem

  • Impact of Human Activities on the Ecosystem
  • Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution
  • Greenhouse Efect and Thinning of Ozone Layer
  • Managing the Ecosystem

Form 5 KBSM

Transport

  • Transport Systems in Multicellular Organisms
  • The Blood Circulatory System in Humans
  • Comparison Between the Circulatory Systems of Humans, Fish and Amphibians
  • The Lymphatic System in Humans
  • Body Defence Mechanism in Humans
  • Tissues Involved in the Transport of Substances in Plants
  • The Transport of Substances in Plants
  • Factors Affecting the Rate of Transpiration

Locomotion and Support

  • Support and Locomotion in Animals
  • Support and Locomotion in Humans
  • Support in Plants

Coordination and Response

  • The Human Nervous System
  • Response and Coordination
  • The Human Endocrine System
  • The Concept of Homeostasis
  • Formation of Urine and Osmoregulation
  • Drug and Alcohol Abuse
  • Hormones in Plants

Reproduction and Growth

  • Gamete Formation
  • The Menstrual Cycle
  • Fertilisation and Zygote Development
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Growth in Multicellular Organisms and the Growth Curve
  • Primary and Secondary Growth in Plants

Inheritance

  • Mendel's First Law of Inheritance
  • Mendel's Second Law of Inheritance
  • Inheritance of Traits in Humans
  • Genes and Chromosomes

Variation

  • Types of Variation
  • Causes of Variation
  • Mutation